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About LEDs are solid state semiconductor devices that represent the future of energy efficient lighting. LEDs were developed in the 1970s and have advanced from use in simple numeric displays and indicator lights to a range of new and sophisticated applications, including general illumination lighting, infrastructure lighting, custom colour lighting, signage and traffic lights, among others. As LED performance has improved and the manufacturing costs have decreased, LED lighting has become economically viable in the general illumination lighting market. LED lighting offers numerous advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, environmental friendliness, low heat output and durability. These advantages are currently driving rapid market acceptance and growth of the LED lighting industry


Light Production An LED produces light differently than traditional light sources. In a traditional incandescent lamp, a tungsten filament is heated by an electric current until it glows and emits light. In a traditional fluorescent lamp, an electric arc excites mercury atoms, causing them to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. After striking the phosphor coating on the inside of glass tubes, the UV radiation is converted and emitted as visible light. In contrast, an LED is a semiconductor diode that consists of a chip of specially formed and treated semiconducting material. When connected to an electrical power source and electric current flows through the LED, light is emitted by the LED


Colour Composition of LEDs The colour composition of the light emitted by the LED is based on the chemical composition of the material being excited: red light emitting LEDs are based on aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs); blue light emitting LEDs are made from indium gallium nitride (InGaN); and, green light emitting LEDs are made from aluminum gallium phosphide (AlGaP). “White” light is created by combining the light from red, green, and blue (RGB) LEDs or by using a phosphor in combination with a blue light emitting LED to convert the blue light to white light. The phosphor may be deposited directly on the LED or may be interposed between the LED and area to be illuminated, for example integrated in an optical element associated with the LED. LEDs are small, usually less than one millimeter square in surface area. The LEDs used in lighting applications are typically mounted in a package DIPs or on a circuit board SMD , electrically connected to the circuit board, and a plastic or silicone element provides protection and, in some cases, acts as a lens and/or carrier for phosphor. LEDs generate heat when an electric current is passed through them, although significantly less heat than an incandescent or fluorescent lamps. To maintain the light output and life of LEDs, the heat produced must be dissipated by a thermal management system, usually a heat sink. Optical elements are typically used to manage the light produced by one or a group of LEDs